The Secret Organization of Arabian Hashashin (Arabic:الدعوة الجديدة)
THE ARABIAN HASHSHASHIN
al-da’wa al-jadīda (Arabic:الدعوة الجديدة)
Tapi Assassin’s Creed ga sepenuhnya salah, beberapa fakta memang benar tentang hashshashin, ini adalah sejarah singkat hashshashin, atau juga dikenal sebagai THE HOLY KILLERS
orang2 hashshashin adalah orang-orang Nizari Ismailis fraksi Nizāriyya (Syiah Muslim) yang terusir dari dinasti Mesir dan mengungsi ke IranIrak, Syria, dan Lebanon. Di sana mereka membangun perbentengan mereka. hashshashin juga dikenal sebagai “penghasil hashis” oleh musuh2 mereka. Hashshashin juga dikenal sebagai al-da’wa al-jadīda yang artinya adalah “doktrin baru” dan sekarang berhubungan dengan organisasi Fedayeen, Hashshashin bukanlah suatu kerajaan atau dinasti, mereka lebih dikenal sebagai suatu perkumpulan, atau banyak yang menyebut mereka sebagai “sekte”
Benteng hashashin di Alamut
Benteng hashashin di Masyaf yang dibangun oleh para Nizari Ismailis, atau orang hashashin
Hashshashin dipimpin oleh pemimpin kharismatik yang bernama Hasan-i -Sabbah atau yang dikenal sebagai Al-Mualim, atau “guru”
Ada rumor yang beredar tentang Hashshashin , yang berkata bahwa cara perekrutan yang dilakukan adalah dengan cara membuat sang calon percaya kalau dia sedang berada di ambang kematian (dengan drug, kemungkinan hashis atau sesuatu yang lebih kuat), kemudian, ia akan melihat dirinya berada di Firdaus dan dilayani oleh perawan-perawan. Padahal sesungguhnya, sang calon tidak meninggal, ia hanya dibawa ke suatu kebun yang indah, dan ia dibuat percaya bahwa kebun indah yang dilihatnya benar2 firdaus.
para hashshashin melawan muslim Dinasti Seljuk yang menentang keberadaan mereka. Metode membunuh mereka adalah dengan cara pembunuhan secara diam2, dan berlaku sebagai seorang Assassin (pembunuh), mereka menggunakan pisau yang disembunyikan, panah, sampai racun. Mereka membunuh setiap target dari para Seljuk secara diam2, dan terkadang, mereka membunuh target mereka di hadapan khalayak ramai dan terkadang juga, di masjid, agar banyak yang dapat melihat.
FINEST KILLING IN SELJUK WAR (1 VS 13)
metode pembunuhan paling keren…seorang assasin membunuh seorang menteri/vizier. Dia membiarkan dirinya tertangkap dan mengaku bahwa rencana tersebut didukung oleh 13 orang pejabat istana sultan……..maka segera dibunuhlah ke-13 orang tersebut dengan tuduhan makar
padahal sebenarnya ke-13 orang adalah orang setia dan target utama hashasin…….yang juga harus dibunuh……….hashasin melakukannya….membunuh 13 musuh hanya dengan satu tusukan……[/quote]
THE HASHSHASHIN KILLING METHOD
para Hashshashin membunuh dengan cara terlebih dahulu menggunakan penyamaran (disguise), lalu, dengan small hidden blade atau dagger, dan menusuk target mereka di tengah keramaian.
JANNA : THE HASHASHIN MARTIAL ARTS
Para Hashshashin mengenal seni bela diri yang disebut Janna yang mengandung teknik menyerang (striking), grappling, dan tendangan ke arah bawah (low kicks) yang membuat mereka menjadi pejuang yang lain dari yang lain
WHY HASHASHIN IS AN ELITE WARRIOR
Kenapa Hashshashin saya taruh sebagai elite warrior adalah karena metode dan taktik penyerangan mereka yang seperti ninja, beroperasi di dalam bayangan, dan menyerang ketika tidak ada yang memperhatikan, ditambah lagi dengan pembunuhan diam-diam di muka umum, menjadi nilai plus yang tinggi yang mengangkat nama mereka sebagai pejuang elit dan bukan sekedar pejuang biasa. Jumlah mereka yang sebenarnya kecil menjadi teror bagi suatu perkumpulan raksasa, persis seperti special forces sekarang ini
Hashashin berakhir sejak invasi bangsa Mongol ke Timur Tengah, hal ini dikonfirmasi oleh Marco Polo didalam jurnalnya
THE WELL-KNOWN HASHASHINS
Pemimpin para Hashashin yang kahrismatik, Ia yang pertama mendirikan hashashin dan membuatnya menjadi grup yang ditakuti orang karena keterampilan dalam membunuh diam-diam
Altaïr ibn La-Ahad (الطائر ابن لا أحد , Arabic, “The Flying Eagle, Son of None”)
Waduh, yang ini saya gak tau ya…beneran ato engga, tapi saya tulis kan “terkenal” bukan “ada” , jadi boleh dong ya, hehehehehe, tapi target yang tereksekusi didalam game-nya, memang benar2 terbunuh, seperti Robert de Sable (Grand Master Knight Templar), William de Monferatt, Sibrand (Teutonic Knight), Majd al-Adin, dsb. Walaupun belum tentu dibunuh ama Altair , tapi pokoknya “terkenal” lah
The Order of Assassins
Nizam al-Mulk had good reason to fear the Shiites, particularly the Ismailis, as the empire’s most dangerous enemy. Late in his reign a Persian named Hasan-i Sabbah (1050-1124) founded the Order of Assassins and dedicated them to advancing the Ismaili cause.
Born in Rai, Hasan had been an early Ismaili convert; at the age of 24 he was already a deputy dai or teacher under Attash, the chief dai of Iraq and western Iran. In 1078 he went to attend the principal school for Ismaili missionaries, the House of Wisdom in Cairo. Two years later he was accused of interfering in the schemes of the Mameluke general Badr al-Jamali, who was the power behind the Fatimid throne. Cast into prison, Hasan won a reprieve when the tower in which they held him collapsed for no apparent reason. Some thought Hasan had used magic, and Badr looked for another way to get rid of him. Unwilling to risk Ismaili wrath by having Hasan executed, Badr placed him on a European ship sailing out of Alexandria. An unseasonal storm blew the ship north instead of west until the captain managed to put ashore in northern Syria and disembark his unwilling passenger.
After that Hasan established a network of dais in Iran who wandered around teaching the Ismaili doctrine, making converts, and organizing subversive activities against the Seljuks and their Abbasid puppets. Since he lacked both an army and great wealth, Hasan could not fight a conventional war against his Sunni foes, but assassination had long been a political tool in the Islamic world, and Hasan had no shortage of fanatics willing to die for his cause. Consequently that became his favorite tactic, though he also frequently used trickery, bribery, and outright lies.
To use his followers to maximum effect, Hasan first had to establish a suitable base of operations. He chose a powerful fortress in northern Iran named Alamut, “the Eagle’s Guidance.” Perched on a six-hundred-foot-high spur of rock, with only a single gorge leading to it, this eyrie was impervious to ordinary sieges. But Hasan, as we have seen, was no ordinary man. In September 1090 Ismaili members of Alamut’s garrison smuggled Hasan inside. During the next few weeks he won over the entire garrison to his cause. Early one morning Hasan showed himself to the startled commandant, handed him a check for 3,000 golden dinars (which was subsequently paid in full), and wished him a pleasant journey home.
Once Alamut was his, Hasan, now known as the Master, strengthened the existing fortifications and set up a special school to train his followers. The Master picked these followers, known as fildais, from among the hundreds of applicants who hiked to Alamut every year. The ideal recruit was no older than twelve years and possessed a strong body, mind, and character. Those chosen were taught total obedience to the Master; ordinary religious beliefs were for the masses, and only the Ismaili imam had true eternal knowledge. They also got rigorous physical exercise, followed by training in the use of various weapons, especially the dagger. Finally the fildai learned be a master of disguise so that he could approach a potential victim easily. For the same reason foreign languages were taught, with court etiquette, since the victims were likely to be in the sultan’s court. Fildais were ranked according to seven levels of achievement, and took part in secret rites and oaths every time they progressed from one level to the next.
We often think that the term Assassin meant “hashish eaters,” suggesting that Assassins were often high on the drug during their missions to make them impatient of this world and oblivious of the personal consequences of their acts. Marco Polo wrote that just before a fildai received his first assignment, they would drug and take him to a place designed to resemble Paradise. He would wake up in a garden filled with fruit trees, lush greenery, bubbling streams, and beautiful women, and experience pleasures of every description. Drugged again, the fildai would wake up in his own bed with a renewed dedication to the cause. Some historians have suggested that Assassin really means “followers of Hasan” and have remarked that a garden like the one described above would have been an expensive luxury in the harsh climate of Iran, and quite unnecessary, in view of the real religious fanaticism exhibited by the Assassins.
Shocked to hear of the fall of Alamut, Malik Shah gathered his army and marched against the rebels. Since a direct assault was obviously futile, Malik Shah tried to starve the Assassins out, by destroying the crops on the farms nearest the castle. The siege continued on and off for two years, without success. One night in the fall of 1092 Hasan and seventy handpicked men sneaked into the sultan’s camp, and plied their daggers with speed and silence among the besiegers. When dawn came the survivors realized how much carnage had been done and hastily withdrew.
Earlier in the same year they carried out the first successful assassination, setting the pattern for all subsequent ones. Nizam al-Mulk was stabbed to death by a fildai disguised as a Sufi holy man presenting a petition. The Assassin was slain in turn when he tripped on the tent ropes while attempting to escape. In November Hasan settled another old debt by poisoning Malik Shah. After that the Assassins would strike without warning at Seljuk officials in positions of authority, and at teachers of other Moslem sects who preached against the Ismaili creed.
With the sudden deaths of both the sultan and the grand vizier, the Seljuk empire went to pieces. Malik Shah left behind too many sons, resulting in a civil war between their backers. The heir, Nasir-ud-Din Mahmud, could only maintain order in Central Asia and Iran; this diminished realm was now renamed the Sultanate of Merv. The lands farther west fell into the hands of many emirs, not all of them Turks. These emirs, known as atabegs (guardians), were the acting governors of various provinces for infant Seljuk princes, but their inability to keep their charges alive soon outpaced the fertility of the Seljuk family. As a result, the Middle East was soon deplorably congested with petty states, and that paved the way for the Crusaders’ initial success when they entered the region.
Islam’s initial reaction to the First Crusade was confusion. Some Sunnis thought the “Franks” were Fatimid agents, sent from Egypt to destroy true Islam. A few years later, the kingdom of Georgia swept out of obscurity to take Tbilisi in the Caucasus (1121), and with that the Christian counterattack reached threatening proportions. It took a whole generation for Islam to revive and combine its efforts to bring Christendom’s advance to a halt. Meanwhile the political kaleidoscope continued, now more chaotic than ever.
Another Christian state that benefitted from Islam’s situation was Byzantium. Alexius and the emperors that followed him conducted several minor Imperial campaigns in Turkey that recovered the entire coastline. Most of the interior, however, remained under Moslem rule. Since the Byzantines made their gains at the expense of the Sultanate of Rum, the Danishmendids were comparatively strengthened. After it lost Nicaea to the First Crusade, the weakened Seljuk authority moved its capital to the ancient and less accessible city of Iconium (modern Konya).
The nastiest conflict in the Islamic world remained that between the Assassins and the Seljuk Sultanate of Merv. The Seljuks killed anyone they suspected of being an Assassin or an Assassin sympathizer. The reprisals did not affect Assassin activities, though, and their opponents continued to live in a constant state of fear. No one knew where they would strike next or who would be the target. Many of their less dangerous opponents woke up to find a dagger implanted in the pillow next to their heads, its message abundantly clear and seldom ignored.
In 1105 the sultan Ghiyath-ud-Din Mohammed Topor tried to end the Assassin threat by destroying Alamut. After heavy fighting the Assassins and their allies, four Jewish congregations that lived in the surrounding mountains, defeated him. In September of the next year Hasan-i Sabbah struck back. The vizier, Nishapur Fakhr al-Mulk (son and successor of Nizam al-Mulk), was slain by a beggar presenting a petition. The vizier’s guards captured the “beggar,” and under torture he revealed the names of twelve co-conspirators in his crime, all of whom were important court officials. After the officials were executed, it was discovered that they were all innocent. The Assassin died knowing that he had killed thirteen enemies of the Order of Assassins with a single dagger thrust.
In 1108 Hasan banished his wife and daughter from Alamut, never to see them again, and declared that from now on he would allow no women in the fortress. With his wife gone Hasan could choose a successor in his own way. He did not think his sons were suitable heirs and was positive they would cause trouble if somebody else was picked to succeed him. The problem was solved when a dai was mysteriously murdered in the fortress; Hasan’s eldest son was charged, judged guilty though the evidence was slight, and sentenced to death. Another son was executed for simple disobedience. The third and youngest son somehow found some forbidden wine in the fortress and paid for his drunkenness with his life.
With his dynastic troubles behind him Hasan could turn his attention back to the Seljuks. Topor returned to Alamut in 1110 and tried to starve the Assassins into submission. He nearly succeeded; the fortress was on the verge of capitulation when Topor died in 1118, without the aid of the Assassins. The Seljuk realm split right down the middle; a son of Malik Shah, Mu’izz ud-Din Sanjar, seized power in Central Asia, leaving only Iran to Topor’s son. Now there were three Seljuk sultanates, centered on Iconium, Hamadan, and Merv.
The Seljuk squabble gave the Assassins a reprieve, but before the year was over Sanjar marched on Alamut with another army and renewed the siege. One morning he found a dagger in his pillow, with a note impaled on its blade. The note contained a single word from Hasan: “Negotiate!” Sanjar found it convenient to agree.
Not long after that the sultan’s ambassadors made the long walk up the mountain to the gates of Alamut. Inside they found row after row of youths wearing red tunics and white trousers, surrounding an old man who stood erect despite his sixty-eight years. Gathering their courage, they stepped up to Hasan and announced Sanjar’s generous terms: acknowledge the sultan as rightful ruler, abandon Alamut, and be thankful your life will be spared. Hasan responded by nodding slightly to a young fildai who immediately drew a knife and slit his own throat. Then Hasan turned and nodded to another fildai on the fortress wall; this one leapt into space to meet his end on the rocks more than six hundred feet below. Hasan told the shocked ambassadors that he had 60,000 followers who would obey him with as much enthusiasm as the two that had just died.
Hasan gave his own terms for peace and sent the ambassadors back to Sanjar’s camp. In exchange for tribute and immediate withdrawal the Assassins would stop proselytizing in the sultan’s domains and put their unparalleled intelligence service at his disposal. Sanjar agreed to those terms and hurried to the relative safety of his capital.
In 1121 the long arm and unfailing memory of Hasan reached out to slay Afdal, the Egyptian vizier who had ousted Nizar, his favorite Fatimid, twenty-six years earlier. This was the last major assassination of Hasan’s lifetime. He died in 1124, after naming Buzurg Umid, one of the original Alamut garrison, to be his successor. Umid, however, broke with the will of Hasan and made his own son heir, starting a dynasty that lasted until 1256. Umid and each of the next six grand masters continued to enjoy success, but never again was the Order of Assassins led by such a capable visionary.